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Indigenous Knowledge: Citation

A selection of resources to aid in accessing and using indigenous knowledge, native science, and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK).

General recommendations

The Library of Congress provides sound guidelines on citing primary source materials in Chicago, MLA, and APA formats. Citation of primary source materials is often a matter of interpretation. A simple test is to ask "Can someone unfamiliar with the source locate it using the citation I've provided?"

Oral History Interviews

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., section 5.7.7 and 5.6.2b)

Structure:

Last name, First name. “Title of Interview.” By Name of Interviewer.Day Month Year of Interview. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. ,opt. URL.

Example:

Patton, Gwendolen M. “Gwendolyn M. Patton oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Montgomery, Alabama, 2011-06-01.” Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/item/afc2010039_crhp0020/>.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.207)

Structure:

“Title of interview” by First Name Last Name of interviewer, Title of publication or Web site, Month, Day Year of publication, URL (accessed date).

Example:
“Gwendolyn M. Patton oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Montgomery, Alabama, 2011-06-01.” From Library of Congress, Civil Rights Oral History Project. Film. http://www.loc.gov/item/afc2010039_crhp0020/ (accessed Jan. 15, 2016).

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). “Title of interview” [Video]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:
Patton, G. M. (2011, June 1). Gwendolyn M. Patton oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Montgomery, Alabama [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/item/afc2010039_crhp0020/.

Photographs

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., sections 5.7.6 and 5.6.2d)

Structure:

Last name, First name. Title. Date of composition. Photograph. Institution, City. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

O'Sullivan, Timothy H. Incidents of the War. A Harvest of Death. c1865. Photograph. Lib. of Cong., Washington D.C. Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/cwp2003001110/PP/>.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.207)

Structure:

“Title of interview” by First Name Last Name of interviewer, Title of publication or Web site, Month, Day Year of publication, URL (accessed date).

Example:

“Gwendolyn M. Patton oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Montgomery, Alabama, 2011-06-01.” From Library of Congress, Civil Rights Oral History Project. Film. http://www.loc.gov/item/afc2010039_crhp0020/ (accessed Jan. 15, 2016).

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of work (include brackets if the title does so) [Format description]. Retrieved from http://....

Example:
O’Sullivan, T. (1863, July). [Incidents of the war. A harvest of death, Gettysburg, July 1863] [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/cwp2003001110/PP.

Sound Recordings

MLA Citation Format:
(MLA Handbook, 7th ed., sections 5.7.2 and 5.6.2d)

Structure:

Last name, First name. Song title. Perf. First name Last name. Rec. Day Month Year. Manufacturer, Year. Original format. Title of the Web site. Web. Day Month Year of access. <opt. URL>.

Example:

Scott, Mrs. Ben, and Myrtle B. Wilkinson. Haste to the Wedding. Rec. 31 October 1939 by Sydney Robertson Cowell. 78 rpm. Lib. of Cong. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. <http://www.loc.gov/item/afccc.a4227b4>.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.205)

Structure:

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:

Scott, Mrs. Ben and Myrtle B. Wilkinson, performers. “Haste to the Wedding.” Sound recording. Turlock, CA: Sidney Robertson Cowell, October 31, 1939. From Library of Congress, California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties. MP3, WAV. http://www.loc.gov/item/afccc.a4227b4 (accessed January 9, 2006).

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). Title of work. [Format.] Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Scott, Mrs. B. and M. B. Wilkinson, performers. (31 October 1939). Haste to the wedding [Sound recording]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/item/afccc.a4227b4.